The Inhuman. Reflections on Time. J can-Francois Lyotard. Translated by Geofirey Bennington and Rachel Bowlby l] g Polity Press. In this major study, now available in paperback, Lyotard develops his analysis of the phenomenon of postmodernity, and examines the philosophy of Kant. Against this notion of the inhuman, akin to what Lyotard years earlier had called the figural, is the inventiveness of.

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Lyotard gives us a few examples of types of utterances. For Lyotard language is composed of a multiplicity of phrase regimes which cannot be translated into each other.

Jean François Lyotard

We should interpret Lyotard as taking this to be a good thing, since such a proliferation more accurately reflects his general ontological view of the world as composed of events which give rise to multiple interpretations, and which can never be accurately captured by a single narrative.

Lyotard’s paganism was also feminist because he argued that women, like paganism, are antirational and antiphilosophical. Furthermore, in post-industrial society information lhotard become a primary mode of production, and Lyotard is concerned that in the interests of maximising profits information will become increasingly privatised by corporations.

The figural is the disruptive force that is irreducible to any systemic or linguistic approach to language. He does, however, see a problem with the legitimation of knowledge by performativity. The postmodern, then, bears witness not to the fact that there are no facts, but rather that those claiming a passkey to reality merely want to make a claim for the hegemony of one phrase regimen e.

Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Adami, Arakawa, BurenParis: Callinicos, Alex,Against Postmodernism: References and Further Reading The following is a list of books by and about Lyotard available in English.

For Lyotard phenomenology cannot properly formulate a materialist worldview and the objective nature of the relations of production; it ends up interpreting class struggle as taking place in consciousness. Any reader of Twitter knows the problem: As a child, Lyotard had many aspirations: After Libidinal Economythrough a series of shorter works, Lyotard argued that we live again in pagan societies with many gods to be worshipped.


The Kantian Critique of History, trans. Lyotard’s writings cover a large range of topics in philosophy, politics, and aesthetics, and experiment with a wide variety of styles. East Dane Designer Men’s Fashion. Withoutabox Submit to Film Festivals. Saussure’s linguistics suggests that our understanding of lyotardd world is given as a structure to begin with, while Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology suggests that we first encounter an unstructured world, which we must work to structure.

Rather, the task is inhujan develop an attunement to the plurality lyotadd opinions and language games. According to Lyotard, postmodernity is characterised by the end of metanarratives. As he reports in an autobiographical essay that opens Peregrinations: The meaning of a phrase—an event something happens –cannot be fixed by appealing to reality what actually happened.

From the point of view of deconstruction, Lyotard’s philosophy gives too much credit to illegitimate categories and groups. Other Internet Resources [Please contact the author with suggestions. This concern for difference, multiplicity and pluralism is related to Lyotard’s basic commitment to an ontology of singular events: He suggests that structured, abstract conceptual thought has dominated philosophy since Plato, denigrating sensual experience.

In concentrating on specific differences, Lyotard’s thought becomes overly dependent on differences; between categories that are given as fixed and well defined. Lyotard’s libidinal politics is not aimed at overthrowing capitalism, then, but of working within it to release the libidinal energies dissimulated within its structures. As a defining element with which to characterise these technical and technological advancements, Lyotard chooses computerization.

Lyotard was a frequent writer on aesthetic matters. Lyotard’s response to the nihilism of representational theory is not to propose an “other” to it which he believes is impossiblebut to inscribe theory itself into the libidinal economy.

Sadly, this is his final work.

Jean-François Lyotard

That which is taken to be real and most natural is the formation ltotard knowledge in terms understandable by capitalist economics and its modes of efficiency. For Lyotard, then, the politics of the differend does not call for valuing different discourses equally or one recognizing another, since, of course, conflict occurs precisely where neither side finds meaning in the phrase regimen of the other.


The development of history is seen as a steady lyotarf towards civilization or moral well-being. Yale University Press, Yet these rules only apply within specific genres and there are no rules for how to make links between the different genres themselves. This would result in Discourse, Figure A differend occurs when a discourse does not allow the linkages which would enable the presentation of a wrong.

In this process, affects are inscribed on a surface without being strictly controlled by an actively willing and organising subject.

Edinburgh University Press, During the next inhhman decades he lectured outside France, notably as a Professor of Critical Theory at the University of California, Irvine and as visiting professor at universities around the world. With vast amounts of lgotard stored digitally in databases, who decides what knowledge is worth storing what is legitimate knowledge and who has access to these databases?

Editions Le Griffon d’argile, In Discourse, FigureLyotard differentiates discourse, that is, the written text investigated by semiotics and structuralism, and the figural, that is, the visual, which he discusses through the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty.

We can have an idea of such things, but we cannot match up that idea with a direct sensory intuition since sublime objects surpass our sensory abilities. His aim is to show that structuralism ignores the figural elements at work both outside and within representational structures.

Jean François Lyotard (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

unhuman To follow Lyotard’s concepts it may be best to familiarize one’s self with some post modern philosophy and general media theory.

I am really enjoying it. For Saussure, language is a “flat” system of opposing terms that gain meaning from each other, rather than from referents outside the system.