The IEC Type 2 connector is used for charging electric cars within Europe. Electric power is provided as single-phase or three-phase alternating current ( AC), or direct current (DC). For DC charging, the Combo 2 socket (Type 2 supplemented with 2 DC pins) shall become standard in cars, replacing Type 4. General Info: Electro Standards Laboratories is an engineering, design and ESL is Phase II SBIR awarded and is based in Cranston, R.I.; BBB Rating: A+. 95 Employees Phase 2 STTR Electro Standards Laboratories proposes to meet the requirements with mechanical wav.

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Variable-speed, increasingly, other high-performance electrostandardds and constant-power or dynamic loads. Another common application is the control of the throttle of an internal combustion engine in conjunction with an electronic governor. These are the fast head positioners for rigid-disk “hard disk” drives.

Torque bursts greater than eight times operating torque have been calculated. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

Electro Standards Laboratories 36 Western Industrial Dr, Cranston, RI –

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Electric motors. Fixed-speed, low-performance applications of all types. It developed remarkable mechanical output power. So-called quartz analog wristwatches contain the smallest commonplace stepping motors; they have one coil, draw very little power, and have a permanent magnet rotor.

As proposed by German Initiative Charging Interface” presentation slide image. Furthermore, the inductance of the rotor coils causes the voltage across each to rise when its circuit is opened, increasing the sparking of the brushes.

This provides the fundamental mechanism of speed regulation in a DC motor. After Jedlik solved the technical problems of continuous rotation with the invention of the commutatorhe called his early devices “electromagnetic self-rotors”.

According to Lorentz force law the force of a winding conductor can be given simply by:. This makes the calculation difficult but a computer can do the many calculations needed. Universal motors can run on either AC or DC.


Modern drives have a pivoted coil mount; the coil swings back and forth, something like a blade of a rotating fan. The commutator assembly on a large motor is a costly element, requiring precision assembly of many parts. Though Barlow’s wheel was an early refinement to this Faraday demonstration, these and similar homopolar motors remained unsuited to practical application until late in the century.

Electric motors can be powered by direct current DC sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current AC sources, such as a power grid, inverters or electrical generators.

Type 2 connector

Retrieved July 28, This featured symmetrically-grouped coils closed upon themselves and connected to the bars of a commutator, the brushes of which delivered practically non-fluctuating current.

SCIMs have a heavy winding made up of solid bars, usually aluminum or copper, joined by rings at the ends of the rotor. Direct and Alternating Current Machinery. In an electric motor, the moving part is the rotor, which turns the shaft to pgase the mechanical power.

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Electrically excited DC motor: Compensating windings in series with the armature may be used on large motors to improve commutation under load. A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor distinguished by a rotor spinning with puase passing magnets at the same rate as the AC and resulting in a magnetic field that drives it. Inthe Royal Academy of Science of Turin published Ferraris’s research detailing the foundations of motor operation, while concluding that “the apparatus based on that principle could not be of any commercial importance as motor.

Type 2-compatible socket outlet found on Tesla Superchargers in Europe. Archived from the original on 18 July A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury, on which a permanent magnet PM was placed. In the computer gaming world, torque motors are used in force feedback steering wheels.

A History of Engineering and Technology: Electric power is provided as single-phase or three-phase alternating current ACor direct current DC. Resistors allow control of the motor speed, although significant power is dissipated in the external resistance.


Single-phase AC, electrostandagds capacitor-start, capacitor run motor [85] [86]. Archived from the original PDF on October 27, For a railroad engine, see Electric locomotive. Phzse clock motors have shaded poles for starting torque, and a two-spoke ring rotor that performs like a electfostandards two-pole rotor. This sparking limits the maximum speed of the machine, as too-rapid sparking will overheat, erode, or even melt the commutator.

Retrieved 13 February The motor’s armature current is supplied through stationary brushes in contact with the revolving commutator, which causes required current reversal, and applies power to the machine in an optimal manner as the rotor rotates from pole to pole.

Although they were used only for teaching, in Jedlik demonstrated the first device to contain the three main components of practical DC motors: Piezoelectric motors make use of the converse piezoelectric effect whereby the material produces acoustic or ultrasonic vibrations to produce linear or rotary motion.

Find Out More Close. Stepper position is determined by pulse counting. Small brushes are also desirable for lower cost.

If the mechanical load increases, the motor slows down; a lower back emf results, and more current is drawn from the supply. The current flowing in the winding is producing the fields and for a motor using a magnetic material the field is not linearly proportional to the current. Variable-speed controlled AC motors are provided with a range of different power invertervariable-frequency drive or electronic commutator technologies.

This applies to only motors with current controlled fields and therefore cannot be achieved with permanent magnet motors. This increased current provides the additional torque to balance the new load. Retrieved August 23,