FOROUZAN BEHROUZ A. FOROUZAN Data Communications and .. P R E FAC E T echnologies related to data communication and networking may be. Forouzan: Computer Networks: A Top-Down Approach. Cryptography and Network Security. Data Communications and Networking, 4/e. Data Communications. 2nd edition, Behrouz Forouzan and Firouz Mosha A computer acts as a black box that accepts input PowerPoint Pr data communication and networking by.

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The data rate does not depend on how many people in the area are transfer- ring data at the same time. Since there is no option information, the header length is 20, which means that the value of HLEN field is 5 or in binary. All calculations are approximations.

Each address is 16 bytes or 32 hexa- decimal digits.

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If the EA bit is 0, the address ends at the current byte; if it 1, the address continues to the next byte. Signaling System Seven SS7 is the protocol used to provide signaling services in the telephone network.

Frame Relay does not use flow or error control, which means it does not use the sliding window protocol. This means that the total number of simultaneous connections is The value of a checksum can be all 0s in binary. ACK 0 arrives and Frame 0 is sent.

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Now we can calculate the last address in subnet as we did for the first address. The word channel refers to the portion of a link that carries a transmission between a given pair of lines.

Data Communications and Networking

In a lowpass signal, the minimum frequency is 0. First, the value of the checksum field is set to 0. DLCIs are unique only for a particular interface.

Packet-switched networks are well suited for carrying data in packets. The two networks are similar in the fact that both are made of interconnections of small networks.

We need to add between 17 to 43 inclu- sive bytes of padding to make the size bytes. When the fcn level in a digital signal is constant for a while, the spectrum cre- ates very low frequencies, called DC components, that present problems for a sys- tem that cannot pass low frequencies.

We can call them framing bytes. A scatternet is two or more piconets. In random access methods, no station is superior to another station and none is assigned the control over another.

The total number of crosspoints isFrame 1 arrives and ACK 0 is sent. The hybrid fiber-coaxial HFC networks use a combi- nation of fiber-optic and coaxial cable to do so.

In the case of a virtual-circuit network, a virtual connection is made during setup and is broken during the tear- down phase; the connection is virtual, because it is an entry in the table. If we calculate the checksum, we get 0x Each analog channel carries 1 multiframe. The three traditional switching methods are circuit switching, packet switching, and message switching.


In order to connect several LANs together using T-lines, we need a mesh with many lines. This is a LAN. This means that we suppose all datagrams start at time 0. The Shannon capacity determines the theoretical maximum bit rate of a noisy channel. Theoretically, in a ring topology, unplugging one station, interrupts the ring. We can see the inefficiency in the first solution. We assume one phase to be 0 and the other degrees.

The latest dial-up modems use the V-series standards such as V. Spread spectrum techniques add redundancy; they spread the original spectrum needed for each station. We need to pad the data to have the minimum size of For example, the value nm can be written as THz.

This is also BPSK.