Siswoyo. Dep. KMB-Kritis PSIK UNEJ. Urolithiasis, kidney stones, renal stones, and renal calculi are used interchangeably to refer to the accretion of hard. Nephrolithiasis (K16) Final – Download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt Documents Similar To Nephrolithiasis (K16) Final Askep Batu Ginjal-sis (2). pptx. Nephrolithiasis – Download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. askep urolithiasis. uploaded by.

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The current management of nephrolithiasis lacks a reliable surrogate marker of kidney stone formation to correlate with stone incidence. In a randomized controlled trial in hyperuricosuric calcium stone formers, treatment with allopurinol was shown to reduce urinary UA excretion as well as stone recurrence J Am Soc Nephrol However, in approximately one third of patients, endogenous uric acid UA overproduction prevails, and dietary restriction does not significantly alter urinary UA excretion Enphrolithiasis Clin Proc Proc R Soc Med Renal leak hypercalciuria Renal leak hypercalciuria is a second, less common variety of hypercalciuria in which defective renal tubular calcium reabsorption is accompanied by enhanced PTH, calcitriol, and net intestinal calcium absorption High serum calcium, low serum phosphorus, and high PTH are suggestive of primary hyperparathyroidism.

Acute and chronic kidney injury in nephrolithiasis

Removal of kidney stones by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is associated with delayed progression of chronic kidney disease. Defining hypercalciuria in nephrolithiasis. Although a decrease in urine output is frequently observed, normal or even elevated urine output does not rule out partial obstruction [ 7 ]. Apoptosis and cell death, perhaps triggered by mitochondrial dysfunction and release of reactive oxygen species, has been observed [ 37 ].

Indeed, in a study such as Carvalho’s it is difficult to determine the exact role the nephrectomy played in the reduced kidney function since only patients with extensive and complicated stones are likely to be offered this procedure.


Low extracellular fluid pH: In two studies, increased serum 1,25 OH 2 D concentration was reported in the majority of kidney stone formers with hypercalciuria 20 The two principal causes for acidic urine are: Allopurinol treatment In a randomized controlled trial in hyperuricosuric calcium stone formers, treatment with allopurinol was shown to reduce urinary UA excretion as well as stone recurrence The pathophysiological mechanisms for calcium kidney stone formation are complex and diverse and include low urine volume, hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria, and abnormalities in urine pH Table 1 Ambulatory evaluation of nephrolithiasis.

Racial and ethnic differences are seen in kidney stone disease, primarily occurring in Caucasian males and least prevalent in young African-American females.

Acute kidney injury caused by consumption of melamine-contaminated infant formula in 47 children: Effect of acetazolamide on citrate excretion and nephrolithiais of renal calculi. Mechanisms of nephrolithiasis-associated kidney injury The mechanism of post obstructive AKI has been well-studied in animal models.

Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management

Although a putative anion exchange transporter SLC26A6 has been shown to play a key role in intestinal oxalate absorption in mice, phenotypic and functional analysis has excluded a significant effect of identified variants in the corresponding human gene on oxalate excretion in humans 70 Imaging studies are valuable in the diagnosis of kidney stone disease.

F1—F13 [ PubMed ]. Molecular mechanisms of crystal-related kidney inflammation and injury. Recent advances in the pathophysiology of nephrolithiasis.

Acute and chronic kidney injury in nephrolithiasis

Another study suggests that fluid intake as fruit juice, specifically orange juice, is also effective in reducing urinary CaOx saturation and increasing urinary citrate excretion Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors azkep the risk for kidney stones in women.

Intratubular crystallization events can lead to an obstructive uropathy on a microscopic level, for example in uric acid nephropathy. The increased prevalence of kidney stone disease nephrolithisais pandemic 1.


Nevertheless, the exact relationship between hypercalciuria and the risk of nephrolithiasis with primary hyperparathyroidism is not fully agreed upon 40 Acute reversible kidney injury secondary to bilateral ureteric obstruction. The utility of urinary supersaturation measurement as a surrogate of kidney stone incidence has not been fully studied.

Possible mechanisms of nephrolithiasis related acute kidney injury Acute nephrolithiasiz injury can occur in patients with nephrolithiasis via several different pathways. Correction of hypocitraturia and prevention of stone formation by combined thiazide and potassium citrate therapy in nephrolithissis hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis. Similarly, Worcester and colleagues found that struvite and calcium phosphate stones were more common in nephrolithiasis patients with single kidney [ 25 nephrolithiasiw.

However, no randomized data have been obtained showing decreased fracture rate. The Journal of urology. Hypercalciuria Hypercalciuria is the most prevalent abnormality in calcium kidney stone formers.

Women have been similarly overrepresented in other series of stone patients requiring nephrectomy [ 25 ]. After blockade with an IL-1 agonist, tubular injury and neutrophil recruitment nephrolithiaais reduced and kidney function improved. Although many studies in both animal models and patients have clearly demonstrated short-term structural and functional injury after shock wave lithotripsy SWLincluding the development of hematomas [ 1617 ], these changes appear to be temporary and largely resolve within 1 to 3 months [ 1618 ].

The major determinant of urinary citrate excretion is acid-base balance Such an effort is necessary for the development of targeted therapy based on the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of nephrolithiasis. Nevertheless, most nephrolithiasis-associated AKI has a reasonably good prognosis.

The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for UA nephrolithiasis are: Follow-up treatment is typically indicated with an annual clinical visit. Heterogeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate by seeds of monosodium urate. Mapping a gene defect in absorptive hypercalciuria to chromosome 1q